FLORA AND FAUNA
A very particular ecosystem
90% of Andorra's area integrates lakes, forests, rivers and mountains. Because of that, the country presents an ecosystem rich in fauna and flora. Among the most representative animal species you will find the white partridge, the groundhog, the bruna cow, the chamois, the vulture or the river trout. Related to flora and agriculture, you can look at the grandalla, which is one of Andorra's symbol, the tobacco's flowers, raspberries, blueberries and, of course, fir and birch.
Andorra has more than 1,100 species of plants. Discovering them throughout the mountains and valleys of the country is a natural experience.
It is known by the scientific name of 'Nicotiana Tabacum' and is from the Solanaceae family.
This flower is characterised by its upside-down petals and blooms just after the last snowfalls in high mountain meadows.
It is a national symbol of the country and we can find it throughout the Principality, in fields, forests and other green spaces. In fact, it can be easily seen through the gardens and parish parks. The grandalla appears during spring and is characterized by its pleasant perfume. In ancient times, the flower was much appreciated in the cultural field, since it was closely linked to the world of Greek poetry and mythology, hence its Latin name: Narcissus poeticus.
This plant is often used for decorative purposes and its flowers can be either white or violet.
The blue aconite can attract anyone's attention because of its beauty, but it is also the most poisonous flower in Europe and can be found in many areas of Andorra.
This flower, known as the hepatic anemone, belongs to the Ranunculaceae family and can be found in almost every not too dry forest in the northern hemisphere.
Arnica is a plant known for its medicinal properties, very effective in stimulating regeneration in cases of inflammation and bruising.
Pulsatila alpina, also known as Wind Grass, is a particular plant as it transforms into yellow or white flowers depending on the subspecies.
This flower of the onager family has medicinal properties for topical use and can be found in treatments for prostate inflammation.
Ciberbita plumieri, popularly known as mountain lettuce, flowers between July and August in the valleys of Andorra from 1200 metres above sea level.
Centaurea jacea is a perennial herbaceous plant native to the forests of Europe.
Thymus serpyllum is an aromatic species that has medicinal properties and is used to make essential oils.
Andorra shows animal species of the Pyrenees. A large part of them arrived to the country a long time ago and today they are already an element of the mountains and valleys of the Principality.
It is very important in the livestock of the country. So much so that the Andorran flag contains two cows as a representative symbol.
This little animal is found in the high mountains of the country and surprises with the sounds it uses to communicate with others of its kind.
It is a symbol of the fauna of Andorra. He lives in the high mountains, eats grass and tender shoots of the bushes and is characterized by strong legs and hard hooves that allow him to climb unimaginable sites. It is a very agile animal and has an excellent sight, hearing and smell. In addition, it has two small and thin horns and a short tail. If you are comfortable in your habitat, you usually have one baby and (very rarely), two. The breeding season is usually between May and early June. A chamois is considered to be an adult when it exceeds two and a half years of life.
Inhabits the high parts of the main mountain ranges. Generally, it measures between 34 and 36 cm long, of which 8 cm correspond to the tail, composed of 16 rudder feathers, and has a wingspan between 54 and 60 cm3.
The bearded vulture is a vulture that receives its name from the custom of throwing bones from great heights to make them impact against the rocks and thus be able to eat inside.
Traditionally, this fish has always been part of the food of the people of the Pyrenees, and, because of its proximity, Andorra. Today, most of these salmonids come from fish farms because of the regression of the species due to the disappearance of part of their habitat. Despite that, we can still see some specimens in part of the rivers that pass through Andorra and, on some occasions, you can get to fish. In fact, in recent years there is an effort to recover it.
Andorra is considered one paradise if you are looking for mushrooms. The ecosystem of the Principality's mountains provide an ideal environment for the growth of very varied and gastronomically rich species.
This mushroom has a first hemispherical hat and a more convex-flattened one. It is brown or oracous and has a viscous surface.
Mushroom shaped like a coral and very branched branches. It usually "blooms" in the summer-fall period.
With a brown color and a convex hat, the níscalo is one of the best known mushrooms in Andorra and Catalonia. Its name comes from the fact that when it is cut, an oxide-colored liquid comes out.
The most important thing to keep in mind of this mushroom and all those belonging to the Morchella family or popularly known Murgas or Murgolas, is that they should not be consumed raw or undercooked, since there is a risk of poisoning. The purge has a conical hat made up of numerous alveoli. It is similar to a hive or a small brain with the bottom edge attached to the foot.
With a pink and reddish color, it contrasts with the white blades and foot. It is a mushroom that appears in autumn, especially in the month of November.
With a white color, the marzuelo is present when the cold comes, so in November you can already see it. But, above all, it is visible during the months of December and January.